Wine Tasting - The Sense of Taste
After observing your wine using the sense of sight and smell, it is then time to use your palate to identify tastes. This is far more detailed than simply tasting as we would any other beverage. We must remember to note the characteristics of the wine on all sensory areas of the tongue. Sweetness is detected on the very tip of the tongue, while bitter tastes are sensed in the extreme rear. Saltiness is sensed on the front, upper sides of the tongue, and the acidity-sour taste is sensed mainly on the sides. Some suggest focusing your attention on one sensation at a time in order to be more efficient in your taste. Try taking a sip of wine and swallowing immediately. Then try another sip, this time letting the wine work well around the palate into these sensory areas before swallowing. You will recognize a noticeable difference in the intensity of flavors!
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Wine Tasting - The Sense of Sight
Wine tasting basics begin with knowing how to use your senses to understand, interpret, and enjoy the wine. The ability to recognize what you see, and furthermore describe it in clear terms, is a very important wine tasting skill.
Although some may say the appearance of the wine is the least important aspect with regard to the senses, it is still worth noting. When examining appearance, we are looking for clarity and color. We want the wine to be free of any sediment, leaving it clear and brilliant. Red wines tend to lose their color as they mature, while white wines tend to grow darker with age. A good quality wine generally will be intense in color. The "legs" seen running down the sides of a glass after being swirled, are an indication of flavor density. It is best to use a plain white background, and tilt the glass slightly as you observe clarity and color.
Wine Tasting - The Sense of Touch
Touch is an important category of taste sensation. This is where we try to feel the wine on the palate. Here we seek to find impressions of such things as texture, body, temperature, and astringency. The aftertaste, finish, and length of a wine are all things we feel on our palate. We are looking for how the wine feels in weight (light, medium, full) and texture (silky, coarse, velvety). Try to observe how long the sensations last in your mouth. Most will tell you the longer it lasts, the better the wine!
There are three elements to consider in evaluating a wine’s quality: its appearance, its aroma, and its taste.
Color and clarity
Young white wines range in hue from a pale straw-yellow to a rich amber. The color depends on the grape variety, the ripeness of the grapes at harvest, the way the wine was fermented and aged (white wines fermented and/or aged in barrel will have a more golden hue than those fermented and aged entirely in stainless steel tanks), and how much oxygen the wine was exposed to during vinification and bottling. As they age, white wines darken, assuming a deeper golden color. Browning suggests either an extremely old white wine or, if found in a younger white, a wine that has been prematurely oxidized and should probably not be consumed.
Red wines, conversely, grow paler as they age. Young reds range in color from a translucent cherry for lighter wines such as Beaujolais or Pinot Noir to a deep ruby, sometimes with purplish tints, for a Zinfandel or Syrah. Older red may display a brickish hue around the edges. This should not be present in a younger red wine.
When you swirl wine in a glass and sniff it, the volatile essences of the wine are carried by thousands of nerve endings in your nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb in your brain. The same thing happens, via the retronatal passage in the back of the mouth, when you sip and swallow wine. In effect, flavors are odors in your mouth. Swirling volatilizes the wine's aromas and sniffing draws them into the olfactory bulb, which "interprets" them -- i.e., compares them to other familiar smells.
This is a complex process, because a wine consists of over 300 different chemical compounds, many of which are identical or similar to those found in fruits, vegetables, spices, herbs, and other substances. That's why wine aficionados describe a wine’s aromas in terms of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices (e.g., apple, melon, citrus, cherry, berry, honey, peach, mint, bell pepper, grass, green olive, clove, licorice, cedar, etc.). They're not being fanciful; there actually are chemical correlations underlying the comparisons, which explains the rich metaphorical language used to describe a wine's sensory characteristics.
The primary grape smells of a wine, distinct by variety, make up its aroma, while secondary characteristics, caused by factors such as fermentation and oak and bottle aging, blend with its fruit smells to form the wine's bouquet.
To fully appreciate a wine's aroma, gently swirl it in your glass. The aroma should be clean and fresh, with the characteristic scents associated with the variety (e.g., apple with chardonnay, melon and citrus with sauvignon blanc, cherry and blackcurrant with cabernet sauvignon, blackberry and black pepper with zinfandel, etc.), perhaps accented by the toasty, vanilla-y, or spicy scents imparted by the barrels it was aged in. If the wine is older, it may have a less fresh and fruity aroma, but one with more complexity.
Humans can perceive combinations of only four tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. These sensations are localized in taste buds on different parts of the tongue: sweetness on the tip, with acidity and bitterness on the sides and to the rear.
You may notice the tartness of a young dry white wine, for instance, or the astringency of a full-bodied young red. Some varieties, like riesling, chenin blanc, and gewürztraminer, are especially fruity, if not literally sweet, while a strapping young cabernet sauvignon may taste very dry and even bitter.
The “body’ of a wine – the sense of its weight on your palate – is a function primarily of its alcohol content (the higher the alcohol, the weightier the wine). A wine too high in alcohol may taste hot or harsh, while a wine low in alcohol may seem thin or watery. In red wines, the tannin acids contained in the grape skins, which are absorbed into the wine through fermentation (whites do not ferment on their skins and thus have little tannin) can promote a drying, puckery sensation, like sucking on a walnut skin, while a wine low in acidity may have an overly soft, even flabby impression.
Whatever tastes a wine imparts, the key to its quality is balance, a harmony of all its elements: fruit, alcohol, acidity, wood (if any). By tasting a wine – especially by sloshing it about in your mouth before swallowing - you can gain a quick impression of its most salient elements (is it fruity, tart, soft, bitter?) and to what degree those elements are in harmony. Combined with assessing its appearance and aroma, this will complete your evaluation of the wine’s quality and, most important, whether you find it pleasing or not.
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